Man's solo performance in twisting dances in Moravia and Silesia (Zdenka Jelínková). To the most typical Moravian folk dances belong the couple dances in two-four or three-four time, with the characteristic whirling or gyratory movement on the spot. Forming part of these dances is the rhythmic stamping by male dancers, combined with jumping and hand-clapping. These vigorous movements are typical of male dances like "verbunk" (recruits’' dance), "hošije" (a jumping male dance), and "odzemek", a vigorous Slovak (and Moravian-Slovak) stamping and jumping dance. Helena Bočková: Festivals - When, Where and Why. The article deals with the importance of traditional festivals in the life of the society which have had a different form.
Minor articles and reviews:
"Words to be preserved for seed" (From the glossary of parsons celebrating an anniversary in 1991. The honored ethnographers from the ČSFR make short Statements regarding the further development of ethnographic activities in this country.
The annual report on the activities of the Institute of Folk Culture is by Dr. J. Jančář. The experience with the programs presented by foreign ensembles at the Folk Lore Festival of Strážnice is by H. Laudová. An article on the 100th anniversary of the foundation of the Open-air Museum (Skansen) in Stockholm is by J. Jančář.
The reviews cover the following publications:
Zd. Jelínková: Lidový tanec na Hané (Folk Dance in the Haná Region). OKS Olomouc, 1991. The publication brings a description of dances from a characteristic region of central Moravia.
Soňa Burlasová: Vojenské a regrútské piesne (Soldiers’ and Recruits' Songs), Veda Bratislava 1991. Monography of a complex group of sings, extending our knowledge on the development of musical forms in Slovakia.
Josef Jančář - Martina Pavlicová: Lidová hudba a tanec na jevišti (Folk dance and Folk Music on the Stage). ÚLK Strážnice, 1990. The publication deals with the history of the folk lore in the performing arts, with special regards to the activity of .the Hradišt'an, a renowned Moravian ensemble of folk songs and dances.
Alena Schauerová deals with the importance of folk lore in school education. The issue contains also Information of folk lore exhibitions held in 1991. Errata 3: The column containing contributions to factural errors committed in the field of ethnography in the past and present has been focused this time on the critical stance taken up by three members of the board of editors of the misshapen No. 3/91 of Národopisná revue (Ethnography Review). The three have expressed their strong reservations about the Overall conception of the issue, the low Standard of some the contributions, photographs, drawings and of the typographical design.
The journal is devoted to Czechoslovak ethnography, especially to "folklorism" which represents a sort of the "second being" of the traditional forms of folk culture; in other words, the journal specializes in the popularization of folk culture. This very concept has had an irreplaceable position among other Czechoslovak journals dealing with the problems of ethnography; it represents the scholarly orientation of the publishing institute.
The link between science and its popularization can also be seen in the structure of the journal which contains original scholarly studies, re ports of folk celebrations and festivals, reviews of scholarly literature. The intention to popularize the results of the scholarly research is expressed in different genres: feuilletons, polemics and critiques dealing with the contemporary applied forms of traditional folk culture.
Jan Neruda: A Few Words about the Folk Song
The original feuilleton is devoted to the centenary of the death of the outstanding Czech poet and critic who also marginally dealt with ethnography. The feuilleton contains his reflections on the folk song which • as it seems after so many years - have a general validity.
Dušan Holý-Bartoloměj Daniel-Miloš Štědroň: Three Romany (gipsy) songs
(Auivlcate - Dade zlngaricum - Tikha vgordonaczka)
The first part of the study contains the analysis of the tune of the song linked with the text Aušvicate hi kher baro (In Auschwitz there stands a large prison) which has been carried out by the third member of the research team - the musicologist and composer He identifies in it the similar technique of composition as in the song Dade zingaricum which - together with the song Tikha vgordonaczka - was recorded as early as 1639. They are the records from Kajoni's codex which were first reprinted in 1909. The attempt to decipher the text of the song Tikha vgordonaczka was made by AndrasHajdu in 1955. He arrived at the conclusion which he did not regard as definitely valid and undisprovable. The second member of the research team - the native and educated Romany (gipsy) - came after a couple of collective discussions with D. H. to another possible solution the result of which in the translation into Romany (gipsy language) can be found in the second part of the article; the English translation including the title is the following: "The little woman-beggar. I am going to Lab begging bread for you, poor fellow." As for the translation of the song Dade zingaricum, it is the following: "The gipsy dad. And you, younger, tell me, why do you stay, do you stay in Senica? Give everything to Father,
Father. I will give horses, money to Father." The last part of the study is devoted to the analysis of the 17th-century melodies.
STRÁŽNICE 91 - the collection of the articles evaluating this year's 46th international folklore festival in Strážnice which represents the greatest show of folklore and folklorism in Czechoslovakia. The studies highly appraise the quality of the festival but also reveal some shortcomings consisting mostly in the old-fashioned conception and presentation of the folklore forms distant from the contemporary culture. On the other hand the need of presentation of the adequate and dignified forms of the original, authentic folklore is demonstrated. The following part of the journal is devoted to other Czechoslovak folklore ceremonies and festivals. Their contemporary organization is often connected with big financial problems and their content sometimes reflects commercial concepts. In spite of all that it can be stated that the presentation of folklore subjects still prevails in them. The critical assessment of ceremonies and festivals has been arranged according to the time of their realization in separate regions.
Helena Bočková: Festivals - When, Where and Why
The article deals with the importance of traditional festivals in the life of the society which have had a different form. They can substantionally be divided into secular and ecclesiastic - the latter had not been dealt with at all in previous years. The violent extinction of these festivals after 1948 led to the impoverishment of social life and to the change of the nature of festivals which obtained political and ideological character. Nowadays the original festivals are being reestablished and the elements of traditional culture (e. g. national costumes) the study of which is, however, part of folklorism, began to play an important role again in this process.
The following section contains reviews of both scholarly and popularizing literature.
The Selection of Reviewed Books:
Kolektiv: Západočeská vlastivěda, oddíl Národopis (Luboš Kafka).
Collective of authors: The West Bohemian Local History, section Ethnography (Luboš Kafka).
Jan Władysłąw Raczka: Architektura drewniana (iš). The Wooden Architekture.
Sborník příspěvků z ll. setkání historiků textilního a oděvního průmyslu (Jaroslav Šůla). The Miscellany of the Papers from the 2nd Meeting of the Historians of Textile and Clothing Industries.
Alois Haräsko: Bilder aus dem Sudetenland (Miroslava Ludvíková). Pictures from the Sudeten.
Luděk Štěpán, Josef Vařeka: Klíč od domova. Lidové stavby východních Čech (Václav Hrníčko). The Key to Home. Folk Houses in Eastern Bohemia.
This volume of the journal The Ethnographical Review is enriched by a few shorter articles, reports, quotations etc. As a whole it attracts readers attention by its new content and creative graphic design.
THE SIGNIFICANT JUBILEE (HUNDRED YEARS OF THE JOURNAL "ČESKÝ LID")
One hundred years ago a specialized journal of etnography "Český lid" (The Czech Folk) was founded. Its beginnings have not been connected with the necessity of the scholarly study of folk culture only, but also with the cultural and political situation of that time. The first editors of the journal (C. Zíbrt and L. Niederle) accentuated the process of the understanding of the specific cultural features of the Czech and Slovak nations and their contribution to European culture in general. The understatement of these efforts consisted in the idea of the Slavonic mutuality which was one of the leading cultural and political ideas at that time.
The article is completed by the preface to the first number of the journal "Český lid" (The Czech Folk) which represents the programmatic declaration and the first compact conception of Czech scholarly ethnography. A great number of these subjects has kept its topical character even in our times.
THE MORAVIAN ETHNOGRAPHICAL EXHIBITIONS IN THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY
The ethnographical activity which started to develop by the end of the 19th century on the scholarly basis in Bohemia, also found its response in Moravia. Earlier the most active association was the Patriotic Association of Museums in Olomouc which focused its attention on the collecting of ethnographical objects. The new increasing interest to ethnography inspired a great number of volunteers in smaller towns and in the country. The Moravian ethnographical exhibitions which were held mostly in 1892-1894 represented only necessary preparations for the most important event - the Ethnographical Czech-Slavonic Exhibition in 1895. Their organization was associated with the presentation of the most varied forms of cultural and economic life; the inseparable part of the exhibitions was represented by ethnographical festivals. The political aspect of this activity stressed and strengthened national consciousness. One of the results of these exhibitions was the acquiring of the numerous valuable collections which gave birth to many new museums.
THE PLACES OF PILGRIMAGE IN MORAVIA
The present study analyzes the problems which had not been intentionally discussed for many years, although in real life they have continually existed. Various bans and persecution made the visits to the places of pilgrimage extremely difficult. In Moravia and in the adjacent part of Silesia there are 130 popular or less known places of pilgrimage; some of them have had deep historical roots (Velehrad, Hostýn), others came into existence quite recently. The predominant number of Moravian places of pilgrimage has been connected with the cult of the Holy Virgin, the rest commemorates various-saints (most of all St. Anne and St. Anthony), the Trinity and the mysteries of Jesus' life. Except their religious meaning the places of pilgrimage has had a great importance for people's social communication.
THE FEATURES OF AUTHORSHIP AMONG THE FOLK PRODUCERS FROM EASTERN BOHEMIA
The majority of historical documents of folk production and creative culture is completely anonymous. The anonymity is, however, just illusory because every object bears the expression of the creativeness, art and craftsmanship of each individual. Therefore there are quite different conditions for a more profound investigation of the authorship if we know the name and the place of residence of the craftsman, are acquainted with his life and are able to illustrate his activity with the collection of dated products. The author of the article analyzes the work of the three craftsmen from eastern Bohemia: the two anonymous joiners who produced furniture at the break of the 18th and 19th centuries - and the potter Jin Pivonka (1663-1723) from Česká Třebová. The author writes about the common creative principles, e. g. the tendency to preserve elementary models in morphology and ornaments (composition and lusters of motifs). These traditions, acquired in youth and preserved during the whole productive age, evidently played an important role in the formation of the local forms of folk creative culture.
WE HAVE BEEN EDUCATED AT A GOOD SCHOOL... (LEGS JANACEK'S LETTERS TO MARTIN ZEMAN)
The compositor Leoš Janáček had a great number of collaborators in the Moravian country who collected folk-songs and helped him to organize national cultural and social festivals. One of them was Martin Zeman (1854-1919) from Velká nad Veličkou in south-eastern Moravia. The author publishes some parts from the correspondence dealing with Janacek's research visits to this remarkable (from the point of view of music and songs) locality and with the preparatory work for the forthcoming Ethnographical Czech-Slavonic Exhibition held in Prague in 1895.
THE SONG FOR A NOTEBOOK
The article contains the famous actor Karel Höger's favourite song and his reflections of folk art.
THE FOLKLORE ENSEMBLES AT THE CROSSROADS? (THE INTERVIEW WITH J. M. KRIST NOT ONLY ABOUT FOLKLORE ENSEMBLES)
The editors of the journal asked the director of the City Centre of Culture in Brno J. M. Krist, the significant representative of the ensemble movement in Moravia, several questions concerning further development of folklore ensembles and folk culture in general. The folklore ensembles find themselves in the crisis connected with the lack of financial means necessary for their activity. But they are just formal, extrinsic problems; the core of their creativeness is still on a very high level which represents a good precondition for the overcoming of operational barriers and for further creative activity. It may bring purity and inner experience.
Ethnographic Revue is a quarterly journal which will appear with a new content and graphic design and replaces the recent journal "Ethnographic Novelties" ("Národopisné aktuality"). The new journal will focus its attention on traditional expressions of folk culture, a special emphasis will be paid to the meaning of folk traditions in recent modern culture. The journal will bring, in Ihe main part, also articles, studies, discussions, .contributions and materials for utilizing folklore in the creative activity of amateur as well as professional groups, in broad scale of possibilities related to authentic up to applied forms, stylized forms and relationships with other genres. The journal will bring regular information on home as well as foreign publication activity (books, proceeding, journals, records, ate,) and report on ethnographic expositions and open-air museums, on folklore festivals and celebrations, on important and organized scientific projects in Czechoslovakia and abroad, too.
STREET NEWSPAPERS OF NOTICES AN THE WALL
This study analyzes slogans which have been appearing in the streets of Czech and Moravian towns on August 1968 and November 1989. Author finds out the likeness of both situations and talks about the periodicity of posters and notices which varied regularly according to actual situations. He considers the name "street newspapers" as justifiable for this kind of reporting.
... IT’S NOW IN FACT MORAVIA
The author analyzes the vocal creation of the composer Bohuslav Martinů on the words of folk poetry and arrives at the conclusion that it is not possible to consider Martinů for a composer whose work was affected in the whole creation by the folklore environment. Martinů considered the folk song a precious heritage which he endeavored to approach not by simulating but only by his own lyric and poetic inspirations sounding out the part of his creation.
CUSTOMS THE AND CEREMONIES ASSOCIATED WITH BUILDING A HOUSE IN THE CZECH LANDS
Alena Plessingerová - Josef Vařeka
The study summarizes practices which attend phases of building a house, from selecting a suitable building place to entering the ready-made building.
FOLK ART IN THE CARE OF PROFESSIONALS
Till now unpublished study written in 1959 and put out for the 100. anniversary of the birth of A. Václavík, the first Professor of ethnography at Brno University. The author warns of the misuse of folk tradition and emphasizes the necessity of perfect cataloguing and preservation of the objects in the museum collections.
SONG INTO NOTE-BOOK
Reflections of the poet Jaroslav Seifert on the folk song.
FROM FOLKLORE TO FOLKLORISM
An interview with Richard Jeřábek, Professor for Ethnography at Brno University, about the past and the present of ethnographic science and about the prepared dictionary of folklorism in the Czech lands.
DEBT OF OUR ETHNOGRAPHY
Marta Šrámková - Maria Toncrová
This paper points out the specificities of folk culture in Lower Austria's localities inhabited by Czech minorities and outlines the perspective of their further research.