Journal of Ethnology 4/2016

Journal of Ethnology 4/2016 deals with the theme “Migration Flows in Europe and Their Cultural Remnants”. In his study, Zdeněk Uherek devotes himself to various forms and aspects of migration with research into which ethnology can contribute in an inspiring way to the theory of migration in general (Migration in Czech Ethnology: topics to enrich the theory of migration). Alena Kalinová introduces a one-hundred-year long activity of the Anabaptist sect in Moravia. Anabaptists lived in Moravia in the 16th and 17th century and left their remarkable traces also in traditional folk culture (Anabaptists in Moravia and Their Cultural Legacy). Sandra Kreisslová writes about the issue in what manner the Czech society treats the theme of the forcible displacement of German inhabitants after World War II (“The Displacement“ of Germans in Czech Commemorative Culture). Jana Nosková introduces a case study devoted to the construction of cultural memory with displaced German inhabitants of Brno, settled in Germany after 1945 (The Unwanted “Yo!“. The Memory Politics of the Representatives of Forcibly Displaced Brno Germans at the Outset of the 1950s). Milena Šipková presents lexical material whose focus is on the words used for peddlers at the turn of the 20th century (The Vanished World of Peddlers in Dialect Denominations). Hana Goláňová analyses the dialectal lexicon in relation to Carpathian shepherds´ culture (Dialectal Lexicon in Eastern Moravia and the Carpathian Shepherd Colonization).
The Transforming Traditions column publishes a contribution Dance and Sing for a Better Life? Results of a Research into Folklore Movement in Estonia (written by Stanislav NemeržitskiIivi Zájedová). In Review Section, Helena Beránková remembers the 100th birthday of the photographer Karel Otta Hrubý (1916–1998) and Marta Toncrová writes about the identical anniversary of Jožka Severin (1916–1991), an important Moravian singer of folk songs. In Interview Section, Daniela Stavělová conducts an interview with the choreographer and teacher Eva Kröschlová (*1926) on the occasion of her 90th birthday. Social Chronicle is devoted to anniversaries of the ethnomusicologists Hana Urbancová (*1956) and Lubomír Tyllner (*1946), anthropologist Miguel León-Portilla (*1926) and it publishes an obituary for the archaeologist Zdeněk Měřínský (1948–2016). Other regular columns contain reports from the discipline and reviews of new books.

Migration in Czech ethnology: topics to enrich the theory of migration

The article is based on an argument that in the Czech and Moravian ethnologies, there is quite a big amount of information about migration and adaptation of people to a new environment whereby those information have not been fully utilized and they are rarely used in the relation to the theory of migration. The data were often collected in the past with different intentions than to explain the issue of migration, and they comment on that rather by accident and in a non-systematic way. However, especially the older works can become a good source that can no longer be replenished with experience from the field. The author of the text mentions works of classics of the Czech ethnology, such as Karel Chotek, Antonín Václavík, Iva Heroldová, Olga Skalníková or Mirjam Moravcová, and he shows how several themes served well to their successor to complete the depiction of processes that are connected with the issue of migration, or that could serve for this purpose. In the conclusion, he draws attention to some of new themes which are in-process in the field of ethnology and social anthropology in the Czech Republic. Due to the publication activity in the discipline, those themes are examples, not a systematic enumeration.

Anabaptists in Moravia and Their Cultural Legacy

In South Moravia, a sect of Anabaptists lived in the past, who were a product of the 16th-century reformation. The Anabaptists took a refuge in the Moravian environment that was tolerant of various religions, and they arrived in 1526 for the first time there. They lived in accordance with their principles in the farmsteads they founded in Moravia, and they practised a lot of crafts at an advanced level. Moravian lords admitted them helpfully at their domains. However, after 1622, the Anabaptists as non-Catholics were forced to leave their Moravian settlements. Most of them went to their brothers in today‘s southwestern Slovakia, where they continued their activities until the local Anabaptist communities fell apart. The one-hundred-year long activities of the Anabaptists indisputably contributed to the economic development of Moravia. The Anabaptists also left carefully written chronicles, literary works, spiritual songs and inspiring system of education behind them. However, it is the faience pottery that became the most tangible proof of their activity. Anabaptist faience expresses a level of handicraft at that time. The production of faience became a basis on which the production of peculiar folk pottery grew, which is an inherent part of folk culture in Moravia and Slovakia.

„The Displacement“ of Germans in Czech Commemorative Culture

The focus of the study is on the issue in what manner the Czech society treats the post-war forcible displacement of German-speaking inhabitants. After decades of taboo on the side of Communist regime, opportunities opened up after 1989 to revise the Czech-German coexistence, and gradually the commemorative culture of the “displacement” was formed. The text follows both official political attitudes to the German past, and the public reminding thereof as well as its presentification initiated “from below”. It turns out that especially the commemoration of tragic events related to forcible persecutions of Germans during the so-called wild resettlements becomes a source for the dispute between the different imagines of the past and the all-societal tension; at the same time, however, such acts of collective recollections serve as a means to overcome the traumatic past and be equal with it. The complicated process of facing up to the “displacement” of Germans is illustrates with a particular example of the public reminding of the so-called Brno death march.

The Unwanted “Yo!“. The Memory Politics of the Representatives of Forcibly Displaced Brno Germans at the outset of the 1950s

The case study deals with the politics of memory and the constructing of cultural memory within a group of forcibly displaced German inhabitants of Brno in Germany at the outset of the1950s. The study works with basic empiric material, which is a hit (song) Ich bin aus Brünn I am from Brno published in Brünner Heimatbote, a magazine of this group of inhabitants, in 1953, and four letters sent to the club Bruna, and to editors of Brünner Heimatbote. Authors of those letters, important representatives of the group of forcibly displaced Brno inhabitants and representatives of official organizations of the “Sudeten Germans”, responded negatively to the song text, whereby their major reproaches related to the use of Czech words in the song text (e.g. the slang word ´tě pic‘´ = yo) and the depiction of certain life conditions that were evaluated as being unsuitable and unrepresentative for the group of Brno Germans. The author of the study puts the analysis of empiric material (interpretations contained in it) into the context of the policy the organizations of “Sudeten Germans” applied in Germany after the Second World War. The study can be understood as a contribution to the research into the formation of identities of that group of inhabitants after 1945 and the role of their official organizations and journalism in this process.

The Vanished World of Peddlers in Dialect Denominations

When compiling the Dictionary of Czech Dialects, which has been arising at the Department of Dialectology of the Institute of the Czech Language of the CAS, v. v. i., in Brno since 2011, extensive linguistic material concerning vernacular names of the vanished world of peddlers was gathered. It comes from the Archive of Folk Speech founded in 1952 and the collecting of material excerpted from published, handwritten as well as electronic dialect sources, mainly from the all-national correspondence lexical survey carried out in the 1950s. Based on the example of names sorted into 5 semantic groups (l. common names, 2. names reflecting the local origin of peddlers, 3. names reflecting the kind of goods, 4. names reflecting the type of vessel (hamper, basket), and 5. names indicating the amount of goods), the author presents the denominations of peddlers from the turn of the 20th century, both in their dialect diversity and geographic projection. Each group has its specific feature. The change in the geopolitical arrangement of Europe, e.g., shows that some of the terms from the second group (grán, kočebrák) can currently be identified only with the help of the dictionary. The end of the First Republic, however, brought an end to the colourful world of the peddlers and hawkers; together with the evolving industrialization and electrification the peddlers were replaced by “travelling agents” selling already different type of products (vacuum cleaners, sewing machines etc.).

Dialectal Lexicon in Eastern Moravia and the Carpathian Shepherd Colonization

The focus of the contribution is on the analysis of dialectal lexicon in relation to the Carpathian shepherd culture. It also introduces the Obščekrapatskij dialektologičeskij atlas, 1987–2003 Carpathian Language Atlas which also displays Moravian and Silesian locations and which is a support to the author in her analysis of the chosen dialectal lexicon. This is connected with the Carpathian geographic area and mostly includes “carpathisms” recorded in Moravia and Silesia, and facts about Carpathian shepherd culture. For the lexical analysis, a group of words has been chosen that contains names of sheep (or other) milk products and foods made from it: the group consists of the following words: brynza, oščepek, žynčyca, čýr, domikát and kyselica. The linguistic material has also been drawn from the all-national Slovník nářečí českého jazyka (A–C) Dictionary of Czech-Language Dialects and from the Nářeční slovník jihozápadního Vsetínska Dictionary of Dialects in the South-Western Part of the Vsetín Area. The dialectal vocabulary in the above region contains diverse language layers of domestic and foreign origin.

Journal of Ethnology 3/2016 brings up the theme “Folk dress redivivus – the function of folk costume in the 21st century”. In her study, Eva Románková offers an overview of the development in folk dress in chosen European countries (From National Movement to Folklorism: a transformation in folk dress in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries). Simone Egger pays attention to the perception of folk dress as a social symbol (The “National Costume” in the Period of Post-Modernism. The Policy of Identity, Staging and Identification). In her contribution, Marta Ulrychová presents the life of folk costumes in German borderland (Function of the “Tracht“ in the Life of Inhabitants in the Northern Part of the Bavarian Forest (the present situation). Bjørn Sverre Hol Haugen describes the current existence of folk dress in Norway (Reconstructed times: a case study of Norwegian folk dress).
The Transforming Traditions column publishes a contribution by René Kopecký The Conciliation Cross in Jetenovice; in Review Section, Oldřich Kašpar deals with visual artefacts depicting panoramas of towns and nature (Cosmorama of the 18th and 19th Centuries as an Ethnographic Source) and Ondřej Volčík remembers the 100th birthday of the musician, teacher and folklorist Vladimír Klusák (1916–1991). Social Chronicle is devoted to anniversaries of the ethnologists Jiří Langer (*1936), Ludmila Tarcalová (*1946), Alena Křížová (*1956), Věra Frolcová (*1956) and Jiří Traxler (*1946). Other regular columns contain reports from exhibitions, conferences, and festivals as well as reviews of new books.

From National Movement to Folklorism: a transformation in folk dress in Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries.

European society of the 19th and 20th centuries underwent a lot of changes which were caused by economic, social and political reasons. Due to this, European countries set their hopes on symbols of national safety which they often tried to find in the expressions of traditional folk culture. Folk dress was among the most important ones. In many European countries, the last quarter of the 18th century saw struggles to create a kind of national dress, especially in connection with the spread of Romanticism ideas. The need for national costume used to be determined by historical circumstances and the position of a particular country or ethnic group in relation to the nations surrounding them. In this way, for example, the connection of Dirndl and leather trousers in the German speaking countries, or the Norwegian bunad developed. In the sense of the Romantic opinion on the countryside, even Scottish noblemen accepted the dress coming from the Highlands in Scotland as a symbol of their political goals. In eastern-European countries, people stopped wearing folk dress on regular basis significantly later, often only in the 20th century. For this reason, regional differentness could be preserved there, which did not lead to the creation of a single type of national costume. This could not be pushed though even in the Czech lands even though the 19th and 20th centuries saw the struggles to create national dress with a strong identifying function. On the other hand, contemporary wearers and makers, while reconstructing folk garments, are more and more interested in the original local appearance and variability of folk dress.

„The national costume” in the period of postmodernism. The Policy of identity, staging and identification

The globalized present is significantly characterized by mobilities and an analogy of possibilities. The transmission of images through digital media plays a central role in the communication. The expressions which can be subsumed under the “label of that ethno-cultural” have not become obsolete in an aestheticizing world, but they have been drawing increasing attention since the 2000s. From the ethnographic point of view, the focus on the theme national costume can be anchored between the clichés policy of identity, staging and identification. The contribution will use diverse examples, especially those connected with the Alpine region, to explain which meanings are included in the treatment of specific cuts, traditions and typical patterns, and to which extent the coping with ethno-culturally encoded objects has something to do with the search after a time, spatial or social order.

Function of the “Tracht“ in the Life of Inhabitants in the Northern Part of the Bavarian Forest (the present situation)

Especially in the last decade, one can notice an increasing popularity of the festive dress in Bavaria, which claims its allegiance to traditional rural and town clothing in terms of its cut, colours, decorations and particular accessories. The residents of the monitored location – an area of the Bavarian Forest – use the term Tracht for it. Because the phenomenon has drawn only little attention of specialized literature to date, the author relies on her long-time fieldwork that is based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews with local people. First, she tries to explain two basic used terms – Tracht and Dirndl, and continues with other garments after that. When describing men´s and women´s dress, she only sketches general and stabilized features because the limited range of this study does not allow her to probe different variants more deeply. These are not only a result of occasions on which the Tracht is worn, but also a consequence of fast changes in fashion as a result of fashion designers´ strategies. The author´s major focus is on the manner in which the Tracht carries out the function of a festive dress and club uniform. While its locally-representative function is nearly zero (except for music bands, the Tracht does not have any attributes to distinguish between inhabitants of particular villages and towns), the Tracht is an unambiguous indicator to define club affiliation. Because the northern part of the Bavarian Forest is a borderland bordering on the Czech Republic, the authors trie to point out mutual influences in terms of clothing. Czech residents do not wear the Tracht, however, they take over only everyday garments (e.g. the men like wearing the popular combination of a chequered shirt and jeans), maybe exceptionally the Murtalerhut, a felt hat with a wide brim, from their Bavarian neighbours. The afore-mentioned subject-matter calls for further continuing studies.

Reconstructed times: a case study of Norwegian folk dress

In many parts of Norway different folk dress developed during preindustrial time and some were still in use during 20th Century. Today they are sustained and in use for special occasions. Older folk dress is also revitalized as part of today’s cultural heritage. This paper presents the revival of folk dress in Norway and discusses how questions of time are represented in the work of revitalization. Folk dress of one particular area of western Norway serves as a case study for this survey. The main goal with this paper is to reveal how chronology and art history as well as trends and traditions are entangled in the complexities of folk dress.

Journal of Ethnology 2/2016 is focused on current issues of ethnomusicology. Zuzana Jurková in her contribution thinks about the status of contemporary musicology, the musical-anthropological approach and the study of music worlds in the urban environment (The research spectrum of contemporary ethnomusicology: The ethnomusicologists’ road to the town). The author of the adopted American study – Adelaida Reyes – brings a platform for the discussion about the sense and importance of ethnomusicology (What do ethnomusicologists do? An old question for a new century). Veronika Seidlová introduces a methodological conception of the “multi-sited ethnography” and its use in ethnomusicology (Multi-sited ethnography: examples of application in the contemporary anthropological and ethnomusicological research). The Slovenian ethnomusicologist Mojca Kovačič deals with the study of religious sounds (bells, chimes, calls for prayer) in town (on the example of Slovenian Ljubljana) (Conflicting religious sounds in an urban space: The case of Ljubljana religious soundscape). Zita Skořepová Honzlová submits a view of the music with the Czech minority in Vienna (Music as an anthropological mirror of a minority: An example of research on musical activities of contemporary Viennese Czechs).

Review Section is devoted to the life and work of the literary scientist and folklorist Orest Zilynskyj (1923–1976) (by Naďa Valášková). Interview by Lucie Uhlíková introduces the ethnologist Josef Jančář (born 1931) and remembers his 85th birthday. Social Chronicle is devoted to the following anniversary of the ethnologists Helena Beránková (born 1956) and Helena Šenfeldová (born 1936), the musical folklorist Věra Thořová (born 1936), the teacher and folklorist Alena Schauerová (born 1936) and the folk dance collector Milada Bimková (born 1926); it also publishes an obituary for the historian and ethnologist Jiří Setinský (1951–2016) and a reminiscence of the ethnologist Vlasta Suková (1936–2014). Other regular columns contain reports from exhibitions, book reviews and reports from branch activities.

The Research Spectrum of Contemporary Ethnomusicology: the ethnomusicologists’ road to the town

The text aims to introduce urban ethnomusicology, an important direction in the contemporary anthropologically-oriented research into music. This direction is first set into the context of another ethnomusicological research. After a short look into the history of urban ethnomusicology, significant theoretical conceptions, used in or usable for the research into town music, are described. These include especially the conception of soundscape (Schafer and Shelemay), the connective structure with its two dimensions – the social and the time one (Assmann) and the conception of collective memory (Halbwachs, Kansteiner). The last section of the text introduces how the above conceptions have been applied on Prague music material. The categorization partially inspired by the Appadurai´s –scapes is used for the social dimension of connective structure. Two lines are obvious in the time dimension (to which, in this case, music and remembering relate): the first line includes music as an object of remembering, the other one is its medium. The text is pervaded by the empirically confirmed awareness of fluidity of all borders, which is especially obvious in the today´s big city.

What do ethnomusicologists do? An old question for a new century

Throughout ethnomusicology’s history, the breadth of the discipline’s field, its multidisciplinary nature, and its historical relations to other subdisciplines within musicology have raised questions of identity. Is ethnomusicology a discipline in its own right? “What is ethnomusicology?” is the form in which the question has persisted through changing contexts and contingencies. The resulting entanglement with definitional issues have distracted us from what historians and scientists such as Thomas S. Kuhn and Freeman Dyson have pointed to as the real repository of what gives a discipline its identity: what its practitioners do. To avoid the tendency to have the accomplishments of the discipline’s outstanding members dominate the narrative, and to focus on the activity of practitioners in general, this article explores the power of dialectics to generate new knowledge or new insights by creating a chain of questions and answers engaged in critical exchange and taking into account the oppositions and tensions that leave their mark on the work of practitioners. Addressing the issue that has stood most obstinately against a unitary identity for ethnomusicology – the issue of integrating what has been called “two ethnomusicologies” or a bifurcated discipline – the article first examines ethnomusicology’s problems of identity in historical perspective. From this base it looks at ethnomusicology from the perspective of the humanities and the sciences. Ultimately, the article aims to re-discover and re-articulate the bi-furcating elements in their particular time and place, the better to address issues of generalizability, upon which the discipline’s recognizability and identity stand.

Multi-sited ethnography: examples of application in the contemporary anthropological and ethnomusicological research

The author aims to introduce and contextualize the model of multi-sited ethnography which was suggested by the American anthropologist George E. Marcus as a conceptual and methodological approach to the field research of mobile cultural phenomena and global cultural interactions. The author illustrates the concept with examples of the already implemented anthropological and ethnomusicological research which either inspired this model or used it, as well as with the design of her dissertation research, which deals with transnational musical flows of mantras from India to the Czech Republic. The text also indicates possible limits and challenges brought by this still experimental way that is an alternative to the traditional model of ethnography. Following the anthropologist James Fergusson, the author thinks that the multi-sited ethnography should not replace the “single-sited” ethnography, but rather extend the methodological spectrum.

Conflicting religious sounds in an urban space: The case of Ljubljana religious soundscape

The article focuses on a more recent area of interest within the field of ethnomusicological research – sound. It reveals how sounds of various religious communities in the contemporary urban space reflect, construct or stimulate conflict of socio-political relations. It focuses on the city of Ljubljana and discusses the experiences of the inhabitants with three religious soundings: Christian church bell ringing, Muslim call to prayer (adhan) and the new religious community´s soundings of small bells, pots and pans. Through epistemological dimension of religious sounding it places them in relation to other sounds in urban soundscape. Bell ringing as the sound of dominant Roman Catholic community is being mostly challenged because of its acoustic and ideological domination in the city. Adhan is the sound of minority which has not been not materialized yet in the city soundscape, but has already evoked a broader debate among the wider public. Their reactions reveal religious, identity and xenophobia issues in the society. The Trans-Universal Zombie Church of the Blissful Ringing is using the musical instrument – the bell and the sounding of small bells, pots and pans in the form of progressive spirituality that provokes other religious traditions as well as socio-political situation in the country. All presented examples show how a particular religious sound functions on the level of the symbolic presentation of religious ideology and how the socio-political conflict is produced through religious sonority of the city.

Music as an Anthropological Mirror on an Example of Research into Music Activities of Contemporary Vienna Czechs

The study opens with an introductory section devoted to a brief presentation of the concept of minority and its definition. Based on comparison of the situation in Europe and the United States, as well as in different scholarly disciplines, the author aims to show main differences in its conceptualization and usage in the humanities, social sciences and law. On the background of the discipline´s development from comparative musicology to ethnomusicology, or musical anthropology, changes in the concept of minority and related research problems are outlined. At the beginning of the discipline, scholars focused on musical marginality embodied in non-European and predominantly rural European music in pursuit of its inclusion to the hypothetical timeline of musical development. While some scientists still continue documenting the music of endangered ethnic/national minorities, anthropology of music tends to study musical activities with respect to wider issues, such as music and identity negotiation among minority members, music and migration, etc. Finally, the author presents main questions, theoretical concepts, methodology and a summary of conclusions of her own research on musical activities of the contemporary Czech minority in Vienna, which was realized in the years 2012–2015.

Journal of Ethnology 1/2016 is devoted to the theme Humour and Comic. In her study, Barbora Půtová writes about the history of presentation of exotism in European countries, which developed in the 19th century in connection with the colonial expansion of the Europeans and which accentuated differences in native ethnic groups in terms of absurdity and comicality (Freak Shows in the Context of the Period Comic). Jana Poláková deals with printed humour in folk reading calendars (Women as Objects of Printed Jokes in Selected Volumes of Vilímek’s Calendar – a Supplement to the Humoristické Listy Magazine). Juraj Hamar analyses comic scenes and characters in the Slovakian traditional puppet theatre based on texts coming from the theatre of the Anderle family from Radvan (Structure of Comic Images in Traditional Puppet Theatre in Slovakia). The study written by the Polish ethnomusicologist Piotr Dahlig and included outside of the theme is devoted to music folklorism and its broader connections (Music Folklorism in Poland: a historical review).
In the Transforming Traditions column, Eva Večerková pays attention to the development of kermesse festivals in a selected location in western Moravia (St. Martin Kermesse Festival in Zubří near Nové Město na Moravě). Interview Section introduces the ethnologist Karel Pavlištík (born 1931) on the occasion of his life jubilee. Social Chronicle remembers jubilees of the ethnologists Alexandra Navrátilová (born 1946), Lubomír Procházka (born 1956), Mirjam Moravcová (born 1931), Mikuláš Mušinka (born 1936) and the architect Jiří Škabrada (born 1946). It also publishes an obituary for the ethnologist Štefan Mruškovič (1932–2016) and the singer of folk songs Václav Harnoš (1930–2015). Other regular sections inform about exhibitions, conferences, festivals and new publications in the branch.

Freak Shows in the Context of the Period Comic

The paper focuses on ethnologic and cultural-anthropologic analysis of freak shows. This was one of the forms of Eurocentric and inhumane approach to corporal and cultural dissimilarities in members of extra-European cultures, or physically handicapped people whose differences became a subject of exhibitions and other forms of public presentations. The freak shows accentuated particularly exotic features of different individuals, their morphological dissimilarities and any other deviations and anomalies differing from the standards related to European population. The paper describes, analyses and interprets historical, cultural, social and power factors and causes which made it possible to turn “the others” into a subject of amusement, astonishment and comic. The paper presents principles and strategies employed by freak shows, mostly determined by their impresarios (Phineas Taylor Barnum, Carl Hagenbeck, Albert Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, William Leonard Hunt). In addition to circuses, zoological gardens and wax museums, the paper does not ignore the influence these freak shows had on theatres, music halls and cabarets. The final part of the paper reveals the inhumane message of freak shows which were grounded on ideological and power construction of Eurocentric cultural standards and values. The aim of the paper is to draw attention to a frequently omitted field of ethnology and cultural anthropology, as well as to the negative consequences resulting from constructing “the others” in the context of mass entertainment and the comic.

Women as Objects of Printed Jokes in Selected Volumes of Vilímek’s Calendar – a Supplement to the Humoristické Listy Magazine

The focus of the study is on nine volumes of selected folk reading calendars which were issued between 1889 and 1911. The essay offers an overview of basic types and forms of anecdotes and jokes which could be find in the chosen volumes of the calendar, and their graphical and language means. The contribution presents anecdotes, which were concentrated on women, and uses them to indicate the then society’s understanding of women and their position within the society and family. All selected volumes of Vilímek’s calendar gave a clear feeling of several rooted and only slowly changing stereotype images about women. Some storylines, figures or points had not changed for decades; some others change or cease to exist at the moment when they are no longer actual. While the oral tradition allows a joke to flexibly response to a change, the printed versions are preserved once for all. On the one hand, their relation to the time when they were published allows us an original insight. On the other hand, the point sometimes fully disappears without more detailed knowledge of period cultural and social relations.

Structure of comic images in traditional puppet theatre in Slovakia

The submitted paper is an aesthetic and ethno-theatrological reflection on the theatre repertoire offered by traditional folk puppeteers in Slovakia. It is grounded on an analysis of nearly thirty plays from the repertoire of a dynasty of traditional Slovakian puppeteers – the Anderle family from Radvan. Based on the material acquired through transcription and reconstruction of the corresponding texts, the author focused on the structure of comic images, especially on the comic of characters, the situation comic and the verbal comic. The author also defines the genre of traditional puppet theatre within a broader ethno-theatrological context, and classifies the typology of characters in traditional puppet theatre with the emphasis put on their semantic, visual and phonic sensual-semantic layer. Special attention is paid to Jung’s concept of archetype of a comic character (Trikster) that is represented by the character of Gašparko in the given cultural environment. A philosophical and aesthetical discourse about the comic is completed by an analysis of the comic image’s poetry illustrated by short fragments from selected texts.

Musical folklorism in Poland: a historical review

The aim of the article is to show how the ethno/musicologists, folklorists, music teachers, broadcasting people a.o. have influenced traditional peasant culture in time of basic transformation during the 20th century, and how they have contributed to its documentation and understanding. This review has an exemplary character. Each European country has its own history in this respect. The text has three parts. In the first one, the folklore is confronted with a social history, especially with the process of withdrawal of the isolation in peasants communities and with the filtering of traditional music while it gained new realms of circulation. The second one is dedicated to generations of ethnomusicologists, who created and discovered new topics enlarging the range of ethnomusicology and concept of folklorism towards the cultural and social studies. The third part is connected with contemporary functions of music traditions and roles of ethnomusicologists with the stress on the applied ethnomusicology. The comments on the applied ethnomusicology summarize the author’s experience gained during field research since 1975 and try to present how the past in the realm of traditional culture and music is transformed in the contemporaneity or, rather, how the history becomes united within the contemporary time. The text is closed with a self-reflection of the ethnomusicologist, because “objective” folklore studies are hardly to be imagined, and the individual self-criticism remains as well useful as necessary.